Skyline as seen from London South Bank of the Thames . The Greater London has 7,512,400 inhabitants 3 , called Londoners ( English : Londoners ). It carries 19% of gross domestic product in the UK 4 . The conurbation is home to 8,278,251 residents 5 . According to different criteria can be assessed the population of the metropolitan area , its area of direct influence, to 12 6 or 14 7 million. In Europe, only the cities of Moscow and Paris 8 , 9 have a similar demographic. London is a dynamic and diverse in cultural terms. It plays an important role in art and fashion. It is also a major tourist destination. It receives 27 million tourists a year 10 and has four sites listed in World Heritage as well as numerous iconic monuments: the Palace of Westminster , the Tower Bridge , the Tower of London , the Westminster Abbey , the Buckingham Palace as well institutions such as the British Museum or National Gallery .
Geography and climate [ change ]
Definition of London
Location of Greater London in England . The common name London may appoint several different administrative or geographical areas, which can sometimes be confusing. The most common use refers to the Greater London ( Greater London ), one of nine regional subdivisions of England , formed the territory under the authority of the Greater London Authority and Mayor of London . This set of about 1600 km ² to 7.5 million people which is commonly referred to when speaking of the British capital. However, the Greater London is not officially a city, whose status is strictly defined in the UK, attributed to a city by the British monarch on specific criteria. Before its creation in 1965 , the territory of Greater London was one of the counties of Kent , Middlesex , Surrey , Essex and Hertfordshire . The city of London ( City of London , abbreviated City , or Square Mile in reference to an area of 1 square mile ), located in the heart of Greater London, meets the definition of historic London. This is where the modern city was born and today is the oldest district of the capital. It is also a full riding a special status . The city of London 11 and the rest of Greater London 12 form two parts of “lieutenant” ( Lieutenancy Areas ) different.
Map of the City of London , the center of London , the Greater London and the M25 . The vast Greater London can be described by the urban area of London , which is the area occupied by the suburbs, which covers an area roughly similar to the Greater London but with a population slightly higher. Beyond the urban area is the urban area of London ( London switch belt or London Metropolitan Area ) which includes the territories inhabited by people who travel daily ( commuters ) to work in London. The urban area of London has grown considerably during the Victorian era and again during the period between the wars . Its expansion has stopped in the year 1940 because of World War II and the policy known as the Green Belt and its area has not changed much since. The boundaries of the Metropolitan Police District and the area served by the London transport have evolved over time but are now approximately that of Greater London . Other terms such as Inner London , Outer London , Central London , North London , South London , East London , East End of London , West London or West End of London are sometimes used, untranslated, to designate neighborhoods, statistical units or districts of London, Unlike many other capitals, the status of “capital of the United Kingdom” London has never been officially granted the city by decree or by written charter. His current position was established by constitutional convention , London being the seat of British power. Its status as capital de facto actually part of the unwritten constitution of the United Kingdom . The capital of England was transferred from Winchester to London after the Norman Conquest . It may be that the Romans had marked the center of Londinium with the London Stone , still visible on Cannon Street 13 . The coordinates of the center of London (traditionally located in the Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross , near the corner of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall ) are approximately 51 ° 30’29 “N 00 ° 07’29 “W . Trafalgar Square has also become a central point of celebration and protest. Geography
Satellite View Relevant Life Policies of London The Greater London is located in the southeast of England , at 45 km west of the Firth of Thames and covers an area of 1579 sq km, which places the city at the thirty- electronic cigarettes seventh of the larger cities 14 . The altitude varies from sea level to 245 m at Biggin weight loss pills Hill , south of the town 15 . The river, which crosses the car transport city from west to east, had a major influence on the development of the city. London was originally founded on the north bank of the river and has arranged for several centuries, only one bridge , the bridge of London ( London Bridge ). The main focus of the city was accordingly stationed on the bank of the Thames, to the construction, the xviii th century , a series of other bridges. The city was then extended in all directions, this expansion being constrained by any natural obstacle, in a country almost devoid of relief, with the exception of a few hills ( Parliament Hill , Primrose Hill ). The Thames was once wider and shallower than today. The river banks were heavily decorated, most of the tributaries were diverted and are now underground, sometimes turned into sewers (eg the River Fleet which is named after the Fleet Street , the old street of journalists). The Thames is subject to tidal and London is largely flood . The threat of flooding also increase over time given the steady rise of water level at high tide and the slow slope of Great Britain (higher in the north, lower in the south) caused by a phenomenon of isostatic rebound . Dam, the Thames Barrier was built across the Thames at Woolwich in 1970 , to address this threat. In 2005 however, it was suggested the construction of a dam of about fifteen miles long lower downstream to address future risks of flooding. Districts Related Articles: Central London , Inner London and Outer London . Often described by London neighborhoods ( Bloomsbury , Mayfair , Whitechapel , for example). These names have no official use, but often refer to the parishes ( Parishes ) or district ( city wards ) and remained in use through tradition, each referring to a separate section with its own characteristics but no official boundaries. However, there is a central London which has a strict definition and status, the City of London ( City of London ). Simply referred to as City , is one of the largest financial districts ( central business district ) world 16 . The City has its own governing body and its own borders, thus giving a complete political and administrative autonomy. The new financial and commercial district of Docklands is located east of the City and is dominated by Canary Wharf . The other business area is located in the City of Westminster which also houses the British government and the Westminster Abbey . West End is the main shopping area and includes the main attractions such as ziPhone Oxford Street , Leicester Square , Covent Garden and Piccadilly Circus . West London includes upscale residential areas such as Notting Hill , Knightsbridge and the District of Kensington and Chelsea where the average price a house in some neighborhoods is approximately 5.5 million pounds 17 and where a house was sold 60 million pounds 18 . According to a 2007 ranking done by the real estate group Knight Frank and Citi Private Bank, a subsidiary of Citigroup , London is the most expensive city in the world of luxury residential real estate: 36 800 euros on average per square meter in this sector 19 . Another is the posh Hampstead in the District of Camden , where there are also many personalities in London. Areas east of London include the e cigarette East End and the suburbs of Essex . These areas are located as close to the port of London original, are known to have a high proportion of immigrants and to be one of the poorest in the capital [ref. needed] . The area known as East London was the birthplace of the industrial development of London. The many abandoned lots found there today are full redevelopment, including through the plan Thames Gateway , which includes London Riverside and Lower Lea Valley , which will host the Olympic Park and the stadium of the Summer Olympics 2012 . North London and South London are also terms used to designate the two areas separated by the London Thames. Urbanization
Example of Victorian architecture of Gothic Revival in London’s St Pancras station The population density varies widely in London. The center consists of many jobs, while the outskirts of the city includes residential areas more or less densely populated, the density is higher in the inner suburbs ( Inner London ) than in more distant suburbs ( Outer London ). Densely populated areas consist mainly of high-rise buildings and skyscrapers in London are concentrated in two business districts, such as 30 St Mary Axe , Tower 42 and the Lloyd’s building in the City of London , One Canada Square , 8 Canada Square and 25 Canada Square in Canary Wharf . Recently, the construction of very large buildings has been encouraged by the London Plan and many tall buildings should be created, particularly in the city of London and Canary Wharf 20 . The Shard London Bridge , from 310 m to 72 floors, near London Bridge station , the tower Bishopsgate Tower of 288 m and 30 other projects of skyscrapers over 150 m in height proposed or under construction, such as the Boomerang Tower of 170 m , could transform the look of the city.
Skyscrapers of the City (left foreground) and Canary Wharf (background right) Other notable buildings include the London City Hall in Southwark , the Natural History Museum of London 21 , the British Library in Somers Town , the high court of the British Museum and the Millennium Dome near the Thames to Canary Wharf . The Battersea power station , now disused but in the process of rehabilitation, is an important symbol, while some stations including St Pancras and Paddington , are good examples of Victorian architecture . There is no single architectural style for describing London. Different styles and influences have accumulated and mixed over the years. Many buildings are built of brick red-orange or dark brown as in Downing Street, decorated with carvings and moldings 100 day loans . Many neighborhoods are characterized by buildings with stucco or whitewashed. Few structures predate the Great Fire of 1666 with the exception of a few Roman remains, the Tower of London and some remains of the Tudor period . The majority of buildings date from the Edwardian or Victorian . Many monuments celebrating personalities or events in the city. The Monument , located in the city of London , commemorates the great fire of 1666 , offering a broad perspective on the historical heart of the city, where the fire started. Marble Arch and Wellington Arch , located respectively at the north end and south of Park Lane , are related to the British monarchy as well as the Albert Memorial and Royal Albert Hall in Kensington . The Nelson’s Column is a national monument situated at Trafalgar Square and is generally used to mark the center of London. Climate [ change ] The climate of London is like temperate with rainfall regularly throughout the year, but Bankruptcy unlike in the west of the UK, rather light intensity. The average annual rainfall amounted to 583.6 mm 22 , February being the driest month of the year. This level is less than Rome or Sydney . London is actually one of the driest European capitals, with resources of water per person lower than those of Israel, for example 23 .
Thames frozen in London in 1677 Summers are warm but not hot weather and cold winters but rarely icy. The hottest month is July with an average temperature at Greenwich of 13.7 ° C to 22.3 ° C rarely exceeding 33 ° , although higher levels have become more frequent recently. The highest temperature ever recorded in London reached 38.1 °, measured in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , on 10 August 2003 , during the 2003 heat wave 24 . The coldest month is January with average temperatures of 2.4 ° C to 7.9 ° C . The coldest temperature was recorded on 1 st January 1962 with -16.1 C at Northolt 25 . Falling snow are abundant almost unknown. During the most recent winters, the snow has rarely exceeded one inch thick (less than 3 cm ). This is mainly due to the fact that the vast Greater London creates a microclimate, with heat trapped by the buildings of the city. At night the temperature is at times from May to September ℃ higher than the surrounding areas 26 . The famous smog in London, a mixture of fog and smoke, has become rare these days in the streets of the capital. In 1954, he had killed 4000 people 27 . Month January February March April May Jul Jul Aug September October November December Temp. max. Avg. / ° C 7.2 7.6 10.3 13.0 17.0 20.3 22.3 21.9 19.1 15.2 10.4 8.2 Temp. max. absolute / ° C 14 16 21 26 30 33 34 38 30 26 19 15 Temp. min. Avg. / ° C 2.4 2.5 3.8 5.6 8.7 11.6 13.7 13.4 11.4 8.9 5.1 3.4 Temp. min. absolute / ° C -10 -9 -8 -2 -1 5 7 6 3 -4 -5 -7 Average rainfall / mm 53 36 48 47 51 50 48 54 53 57 57 57 Number of rainy days 14.8 10.8 13.4 12.7 12.5 10.5 10.1 10.9 10.5 11.6 14.0 13.2 Source: Worldweather.org and BBC Weather
London has a temperate climate. Here, overlooking the River Thames towards Tower Bridge from the Millennium Bridge . History
Main articles: History of London and Chronology of London . Roman London Main article: Londinium .
London 400 . The regions around London (now located within the boundaries of Greater London ) seem to have been denver martial arts inhabited by Bretons island since prehistoric times, but no archaeological evidence has been unearthed north of the bridge London , where the city is truly born and where she has developed. The oldest certain traces of sustainable facilities date back to the year 43 and are due to the Romans who, following the conquest of Britain by the Romans , have built a city first 28 . The first settlement was called Londinium . London Bridge was the center of the newly created network of roads by the Romans and was a place of passage for crossing the Thames , which has attracted many traders and contributed to the growth of the city. London is fast becoming an important center of trade and commerce, the Thames for conveying goods easily to the heart of the city 29 .
Westminster Abbey . Only 18 years after the founding of the city by the Romans, Queen Boadicea , the head of the Celtic people of Iceni , spoke out against the Roman invasion and took London to target 30 . The governor Suetonius Paulinus , then engaged in exterminating the Druids on the island of Anglesey , could be time to counter a military invasion Celtic. The city was partially evacuated, but thousands of merchants, however, were killed. London was then completely looted and destroyed. Archaeological excavations have helped to reveal the presence of burnt debris covering coins and pottery dating back to 60, within the limits of the Roman city 30 . The city was quickly rebuilt and soon flourished again, like trade in Britain, and replaced Colchester as the capital of Roman Britain . However, there is no information to date and explain the transfer of the capital. To the ii th century wow gold , the city was surrounded by walls: the wall of London . For over a millennium, the boundaries of the city were marked by the wall which delimited an area now largely subsumed by that of the City . At its peak in the iii th century , the population of Londinium rose from 45 000 to 60 000 people according to sources. When the Roman Empire began to decline, the troops protecting the city were recalled to the continent, London has also begun to fender flares decline and its population decreased. There is little information about this period called the Dark Ages of London (“The Dark Ages of London”), but after the departure of the Romans from Britain in 410 , it is well established that v th century , London was in ruins and virtually abandoned 31 . Anglo-Saxon occupation But the privileged position of the city on the Thames has always been a strategic and towards the year 600 , the Anglo-Saxons established a new city Lundenwic about 1 km upstream of the Roman city, where is now Covent Garden 31 . There was probably a fishing port and trade at the mouth of the River Fleet . Lundenwic flourished until 851 when the payday loan city was invaded and completely destroyed by the Vikings . After the Viking occupation, the new English electronic cigarette king Alfred the chiropractic marketing Great restored the peace and the city is moving in the walls of the old Roman city (then called Lundenburgh ). The original city became Ealdwic (“old town”), whose name has survived until today to Aldwych . Then, under the control of several English kings, London once again prospered and became a place of power and a center of trade and commerce. However, Viking raids resumed in the x th century and peaked in 1013 when the city was besieged by King Knut II of Denmark and that Ethelred II of England was forced to flee. In an attack against the army of King Ethelred won a victory by destroying London Bridge while the Danish garrison was over. Control of the English was thus restored. Knut took over the English throne in 1017, and reigning over the city and the country until 1042. At his death, the Anglo-Saxons took control under the authority of Edward the Confessor , who refounded the Westminster Abbey and the Palace of spa covers Westminster . At that time, London had become the city’s largest and most successful of England although the seat of government was still at Winchester . Medieval London
The Tower of London in the xv th century After the Battle of Hastings , William the Conqueror , then Duke of Normandy was crowned King of England in the new Westminster Abbey , on Christmas Day 1066. He gave certain privileges to the inhabitants of London while building a castle in the southeast of the city to maintain control over the population. This castle, expanded by later kings, served as a royal residence and in prison and is now known as the Tower of London . In 1097, William II began the building of Westminster Hall, near the abbey of the same name. This hall was used as a basis for the new Palace of Westminster , the royal residence throughout the Middle Ages. Westminster became the seat of the royal court and government while the City of London was a center of neighboring trade and commerce and flourished under the authority of its own administration, the Corporation of London . Finally, the surrounding towns have grown together and formed the base of the heart of London modern, replacing Winchester as the capital of England in the xii th century .
The great fire of London which destroyed part of the city in 1666 After the defeat of the Armada Spanish in 1588, political stability in England allowed London to grow further. In 1603, Jacques VI of Scotland ascended the English throne and has mainly tried to unify the two countries. His anti-Catholic laws, however, have made it very unpopular and he was the victim of an assassination attempt on 6 November 1605 , the famous Gunpowder Plot . chicago dui lawyer Outbreaks of plague have on numerous occasions, hit London in early xvii th century , the episode is the culmination Great Plague of London in 1665-1666 that killed around 20% of the life insurance quotes online population. The Great Fire of 1666 was born in the city original and quickly spread through the wooden houses of London, destroying much of the city. The reconstruction that followed lasted more than 10 years.
Panorama of London in the xvii th century . Contemporary History
The Palace of Westminster seen from the old Westminster Bridge in the 1890s From 1825 to 1925 , London is the most populous city in the world 32 . This growth was accelerated by the construction of the first railway lines in London, which is considerably closer to neighboring towns. The rail network has expanded rapidly and has allowed these cities to grow while allowing London to expand and cover the surrounding villages (example of Kensington ). The onset of congestion in the city center led to the creation in 1863 , the first underground transportation system in the world, the London Underground , which further accelerated the development of urbanization 33 . With this rapid growth, London became one of the first cities to surpass one million inhabitants and the first to exceed five million. The local government in London has had difficulty managing rapid growth of the city, especially in infrastructure. Between 1855 and 1889 , the Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure growth. He was then replaced by the County of London which was run by the London County Council from 1889 to 1965, it was the first elected assembly in the city.
Streets of London during the Blitz during the Second World War wedding ring The Blitz and the bombing of the German Luftwaffe during the Second World War killed about 30,000 people 34 and destroyed many homes and buildings in the city. Reconstruction in the year 1950 , 60 and 70 was characterized by a lack of architectural unity, typical of modern London. In 1965 , the boundaries of London were amended to reflect the expansion of the city outside the County of London . The new enlarged territory was named Greater London and administered by the Greater London Council . In the decades Chicago Criminal Defense Lawyer following World War II, a large immigration from the Commonwealth has made London one of the most ethnically European cities cosmopolitan. The integration of new immigrants has not always been smooth with such riots in Brixton in the 1980s but was still better place than in other UK regions.
London Eye , a symbol of modern London The economic revival of the 1980s London was restored to the front of the stage. However, as the seat of government and the main town in the UK, the city has seen many terrorist episodes. The Provisional Irish Republican Army tried to put the British government pressure on the negotiations in Northern Ireland , frequently disrupting city activities with bomb threats or attacks to the cease-fire of 1997 . On 7 July 2005 , a series of attacks was perpetrated in London commuters by suicide bombers Islamists, just 24 hours after the organization of the 2012 Olympic Games had been given to the city. Policy and Administration
City Hall at night, the seat of the Greater London Authority . Local Government Management of London takes place on two levels: the city, under the authority of the Greater London Authority (GLA) and a more local level in the 33 districts of London . The Greater London Authority is responsible for the London Plan defines the development strategy of London police ( Metropolitan Police Authority ), the fight against fire ( London Fire Brigade ), most of Transport ( Transport for London ) and Economic Development ( London Development Agency ). The GLA consists of the Mayor of London , which has executive powers, and the London Assembly , which reviews the proposals and vote the Mayor or reject his budget proposals each year. GLA is a relatively new administration ( 2000 ) created to replace the Greater London Council (GLC) was abolished in 1986 . The headquarters of the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London ( City Hall ) are located along the Thames , near Tower Bridge . Since 3 May 2008 Bins , the mayor of London was occupied by the Conservative Boris Johnson , who beat the incumbent mayor Ken Livingstone , first elected in 2000 as an independent candidate elected in 2004 as candidate of the Party Labor . The 33 districts are formed from the 32 boroughs and the City of London and custom t shirts are responsible for local services not supported by the GLA, such as local planning, schools, social services , local roads and refuse collection. Each district is headed by a council ( council ) elected every four years. The city of London is run by a local authority but by the classical Corporation of London elected by the residents and businesses and which has remained virtually unchanged in form since the Middle Ages . The Corporation of London is headed by the Lord Mayor of London , a position different from that of the Mayor of London. Map of London districts City of London 1 2 City of Westminster 2 Kensington and Chelsea 2 Hammersmith and Fulham 2 Wandsworth 2 Lambeth 2 Southwark 2 Tower Hamlets 2 Hackney 2 Islington 2 Camden 2 Brent Ealing STD Test Hounslow Richmond upon Thames Kingston on Thames Merton
The 33 districts of London Sutton Croydon Bromley Lewisham 2 Greenwich Bexley Havering Barking and Dagenham Redbridge Newham 2 Waltham Forest Haringey 2 Enfield Barnet Harrow Hillingdon Notes: 1 : The City of London is not designated as a district ( borough ). 2 : This district is part of Inner London today, according ppi reclaim to the NSO hcg drops and Eurostat NUTS. The city of London has its own police force, the City of London Police ‘s independent Metropolitan Police Service is in charge of the rest of Greater London . Health services are managed by the national government through the National Health Service , under the responsibility, in London, a single NHS Cell Phone Accessories Strategic Health Authority 35 . National Administration
The Palace of Westminster at night London is the seat of government of the United Kingdom located in the Palace of Westminster in Westminster . Several annexes of the Government are in the vicinity of Parliament, particularly along Whitehall where the residence of the Prime Minister at 10 Downing Street . Although used for the first time in the xix th century by John Bright to describe England itself 36 , the words Mother of the Parliament (mother of parliaments) is often used to refer to the British Parliament 37 as it is often considered the first to have introduced a system composed of an upper chamber and a lower house elected and was followed by many other political systems, particularly in Europe and the countries of the Commonwealth . London is represented in the House of Commons by 74 MPs ( Members of Parliament , MPs) that correspond to the division into districts of the city. Of these 74 members, 44 are from the Labour Party , 21 of the Conservative Party , 8 of the Liberal Democrats and the Party of respect . Twinning Berlin ( Germany ) Bombay ( India ) New Delhi ( India ) Moscow ( Russia ) Naples ( Italy ) New York ( USA ) Relationships are being built with Tokyo and Shanghai 38 . Demographics
London has always been an important center of population. At the time, city, urban area and urban area’s most populous United Kingdom , it was also the most populous of Europe and the world before experiencing a slight decline. Population The population of Greater London was estimated at 7,684,700 in the first quarter 2007 3 . The urban unit of London extends beyond the Greater London and had 8,278,251 inhabitants in 2001 39 while the urban area , whose borders are more difficult to define, has a population of between 12 6 and 14 million 7 according to sources. According to Eurostat , London is the first largest city and second largest urban area of the European Union after Paris 40 . The city also ranks fifteenth among the most populous cities in the world and among the fifteenth most populous urban areas . Greater London covers an area of 1 579 km 2 and population density is 4,761 inhabitants per km 2 , with a density more than 10 times that of Scotland , of Northern Ireland , casino the Wales or anywhere else that English region . This density, however, hides disparities in 32 districts. In 2005, the District of Kensington and Chelsea ( Inner London ) had 16 178 inhabitants / km 2 in 2011 against Bromley ( Outer London ) 41 . The structure of the population of London is slightly different from that of England or the United Kingdom. The attractiveness of London led to a migration to the capital of people of working age from the rest of the country or abroad. The proportion of people between 20 and 44 years is 42.8% against 35.1 nationally. Conversely, the proportion of people aged 60 and over (14.4%) is lower than the national average (18.4%) 42 . Age structure of London in 2001 (total population: 7,172,091) 43 Men Age Women 154 693 75 and over 268 830 99 788 70-74 120 432 119 113 65-69 128 734 137 288 60-64 145 568 155 664 55-59 167 366 199 509 50-54 211 306 203 589 45-49 213 935 252 639 40-44 258 338 311 034 35-39 322 920 341 087 30-34 354 918 331 760 25-29 360 393 254 024 20-24 276 980 212 044 15-19 204 762 222 100 10-14 213 302 230 721 5-9 221 067 243 740 0-4 234 447 Demographic change London had probably just over 50 000 inhabitants in 1500. It has grown rapidly in the sixteenth and seventeenth th century. Shortly before 1700, it exceeds 500 000 inhabitants and became the most populous city in Europe to Paris. It is about twenty times more populous than Bristol, the second city of England at the time 44 . In 1801 , when the first census, the city had 959 300 inhabitants 45 . After that date, in a context of rapid industrialization , population growth and a strong 1831 , the city reached 1,655,000 inhabitants 45 . Its population exceeds that of Beijing and the city becomes the most populous in the world. She remained until 1925 , when it is exceeded by New York 46 . London’s population peaked at 8,615,245 45 in 1939 and then declined to 6,608,598 in the census of 1981 before rising to 7,684,700 in the first quarter of 2007. In 2016, the population of London is expected to reach 8.1 million. Ethnic diversity
Bilingual signs in Chinatown London Country of Birth Population in 2001 47 , N 1 England N 2 5010969 India 172 162 Ireland 157 285 Scotland N 2 108 682 Bangladesh 84 565 Jamaica 80 319 Wales N 2 71 962 Nigeria 68 907 Pakistan 66 658 Kenya 66 311 Sri Lanka 49 932 Ghana 46 513 Cyprus 45 888 South Africa 45 506 United denver personal injury lawyer States 44 622 Australia 41 488 Germany 39 818 Turkey 39 128 Italy 38 694 France 38 130 Northern Ireland 2 N 37 574 Somalia 33 831 Uganda 32 082 New Zealand 27 494 Hong Kong 23 328 Spain 22 473 Poland 22 224 Portugal 21 720 Iran 20 398 Japan 19 185 ↑ Only the first 30 countries appear. ↑ a , b , c and d Total UK = 5,229,187. London is one of the cities of developed countries with the greatest ethnic diversity. According to the British population census 2001 , 71.15% of 7.5 million Londoners consider themselves as belonging to the ethnic group “white” and 29% are auctions online classified as non-white 48 . 12.09% of the population identify themselves as Indian , Pakistani , Bangladeshi or from another Asian country (mainly Sri Lanka or the Indian subcontinent ). 10.91% see themselves as black (about 7% and 4.79% black African and black Caribbean ). 3.15% consider themselves to be from several ethnic groups, 1.12% are Chinese and 1.58% fall into another category (mostly Filipino , Japanese and Vietnamese ). 27% of Londoners were born outside the United Kingdom and 21.8% outside the EU . The Irish (from Ireland and from Northern Ireland ) are about 200 000 , as the Scots and Welsh. London is also one of the most active of the world linguistically. A 2005 study showed that over three hundred different languages are spoken and that we can find 50 ethnic communities with more than 10 000 members 49 . Residents born abroad The figures of the Office for National Statistics show that the number of Londoners born abroad reached 2,288,000 in 2006 against 1.63 million in 1997 50 . The table below provides against the country of birth of residents of London in 2001 , when the last British census. Religion There were in London on 13 February 2003 58.7% Christian (Catholic, Protestant, Anglican and other), 8% Muslim, 4.1% Hindu, 2.1% Jewish, 1.4% of Sikhs , 0.8% Buddhist, 15.8% of atheists, and 8.7% other 51 . From the perspective of religion , London has been, throughout its history, dominated by Christianity and has a large number of churches, particularly in the City . The St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Cathedral of Southwark is at the head of the Anglican Church while and royal ceremonies take place either in St. Paul or in the Westminster Abbey (not to be confused with the Cathedral Westminster is a relatively new building and the largest cathedral Roman Catholic of England and Wales ). Despite this, the percentage of Anglicans practitioners is very low. However, this rate is much higher in communities Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian 52 , 53 .
Baitul Futuh Mosque, the largest mosque in Western Europe 54 . London is also home to large communities of Muslim , Hindu , Sikh and Jewish . Many Muslims live in Tower Hamlets and Newham and most important Muslim edifice is the largest mosque in London near Regent’s Park . An estimated 600 000 the number of Muslims living in the British capital 55 . The Hindu community in London is in the neighborhood northwest of Harrow and Brent , which is one of the largest Hindu temples of Europe , the Neasden Temple 56 . The Sikh community is it in the east and west London, which also houses one of the largest Sikh temples outside of India . Most British of the Jewish faith is in London, particularly in Stamford Hill and Golders Green in north London 57 . Economy
Bishopsgate in the City of London . By GDP, in 2005 London is the sixth city in the world and second in Europe after Paris 58 . Greater London accounts for about 20% of GDP in the United Kingdom, and the metropolitan area of London about a third 59 . Productivity is well above the national average 60 . Strongly tertiarised 61 , London has a major specialization in finance. The British capital is the first financial center of the world and a major international business centers 62 . Immigration plays a major role, it relates to people from a variety of skills, but a feature of the city is its ability to attract high-income 63 . Economic inequalities are strong. London has many pockets of poverty and the unemployment rate is higher than the national average (5.5% in the UK in the second quarter 2006 against 7.7% in London and up over 10% in some areas the Inner London 64 ) and 53% of children in these neighborhoods live in a state of poverty 65 . Attractiveness The London economy has free ipad shifted towards services much earlier than other European cities, especially after the Second World War . The success of London in the service sector due to several factors 66 : English is a language of international communication, its position as capital of the British Empire , its special relations with the United States and several Asian countries, its geographical position that allows its office hours to match those of other countries that account for 99% of global GDP, the English law is the law of contract most commonly used in international trade , infrastructure multicultural (schools, places of worship, cultural and social organizations) one level of tax relatively low especially for foreign (non-domiciled residents in the UK do not pay tax on profits earned abroad) – however, the county tax (equivalent to the housing tax French) paid each month is very high (about 100-150 pounds / month / housing). good transport infrastructure, especially in the airport traffic a deregulated economy with little government intervention. Services and Finance About 85% of the population of Greater London (3.2 million) work in the service sector. 500 000 people are employed in industry and construction (in equal proportions). [ref. required] London has five major business centers: the City, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark. [ref. required] Business district Office Area (m²) Industry The City 7740000 Finance, brokerage, insurance, law Westminster 5780000 Offices, real estate, banking, hedge funds, government Camden & Islington 2294000 Finance, artistic, fashion, architecture Canary Wharf 2120000 Banking, media, legal service Lambeth & Southwark 1780000 Accounting, consulting company, local government The main economic activity in London is the financial sector whose exports financial (that is to say, the business services provided by London companies to foreign companies in the financial services sector (regardless of property)) contribute greatly to Containers the balance of payments in the UK 67 . Approximately 300,000 people work in the finance sector in London which houses more than 480 banks, more than any other city in the world. [ref. needed] Each year it invests more money in London than in the following 10 European cities combined. [ref. needed] The City is the largest business center in Europe [ref. needed] and competition more New York, particularly because of Sarbanes-Oxley accounting requirements that increase for companies listed on the stock exchange on Wall Street. In a recent study by Continuing Education Units Mastercard, London surpasses New York in four of the six areas of study including economic stability, ease of doing business and the volume of financial flows 68 . The New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg said that New York could lose its status as the financial capital of the world for the benefit of London because of legal and regulatory systems less stringent immigration and the United Kingdom 69 . A second financial best web hosting center is being developed to Canary Wharf , east of the City , and in the headquarters of banks HSBC and Barclays , agency Reuters as well as many of the largest law firms in world. In 2005 London handled 31% of trading in the forex market every day and treats about 753 billion dollars, more than in New York 70 , 71 Denver Divorce Attorney .
The Bank of England , central bank of the United Kingdom . More than half of the top 100 UK companies ( FTSE 100 ) and 100 of the 500 largest European companies have their headquarters in London. Over 70% of FTSE 100 companies are headquartered safety defensive driving in the urban area of London and 75% of companies” Fortune 500 have offices in London. [ref. required] The media are particularly concentrated in London and the industry distribution of media is the second most competitive sector 72 . The BBC is a key employer in the city while many other media have their headquarters in London. Many national newspapers are published in the city and have long free auto insurance quotes been associated with Fleet Street in the City . Soho is the heart of the industry the post . [ref. required] The Port of London was the largest in the world but now comes in third place in the UK. 50 million tons of cargo are shipped each vps hosting year 73 . Most of these goods go by, however, Tilbury , which is outside the boundaries of Greater London . Tourism London is one of the main tourist destinations in the world. This sector generates between 280 000 74 350 000 and 75 jobs according to sources. In 2008 , 26.1 million of tourists visited London, representing revenues of 10.5 billion £ 76 . Of these 26.1 million tourists, 14.8 million were from the overseas 76 . London benefits from its status as capital of the English in Europe and annually attracts a large number of mainland students come to learn the language of Shakespeare. A major tourism economy student has developed around this windfall, some did not hesitate to take advantage by practices at the edge of legality 77 . The main attractions of London are concentrated in the West End , which includes department stores of Oxford Street , theaters, and neighborhoods such as Soho , Covent Garden , Mayfair , Piccadilly Circus and the place of Leicester Square . The most famous landmarks of London are the British Museum , the Tate Gallery , the Tate Modern , Madame Tussauds scrabble word finder , the Houses of Parliament and Buckingham , the Imperial War Museum , the Science Museum , the National Gallery , the National Portrait Gallery , the Tower Bridge , Big Ben , the Tower of London , London Eye , St Paul’s Cathedral and Arsenal Football Club Museum . Transportation
Main article: Transport in London .
Paddington , one of 14 stations in London Transportation is one of four areas of competence of the Mayor of London 78 although its financial control is quite limited and it has no power over the rail network (but the North London Railway is under his responsibility since November 2007). [ref. needed] The public transport network , administered by Transport for London (TfL), is one of the largest in the world 79 but undergoes daily traffic jams , delays and maintenance problems. A program of 7 billion pounds has been set up to try to improve the network on the horizon of 2012 , for the inauguration of the Olympic Games 80 . Although the cost of the highest in Europe, across the London network, however, was declared best transportation system in the world (ahead of New York and Paris) by 25% of 2000 respondents to a survey by TripAdvisor 81 . Rail
Angel Station on the Northern Line The core transport network of the British capital is the London Underground , Underground or London Tube familiarly called The Tube , consisting of 274 stations and 16 lines interconnected to a total length of 408 km . There are many expansion projects, particularly south of the city, and even the construction of a new line of Wimbledon to Epping. [ref. required] , which has the original name Chelsea-Hackney Line. Opened in 1863 , is the oldest network in the world 33 . It even includes the first electric subway line, the City & South London Railway , commissioned in 1890 82 . Three million trips per day, about one billion per year engagement ring are performed on the entire metro network 83 , which primarily serves the historic center of London and the suburbs of the city north of the Thames , but s’ extends to beyond the borders of Greater London . Due to the nature of the soil, [ref. needed] suburbs south and southeast are least served by the subway, but have a large network of commuter trains . The Docklands Light Railway , opened in 1987, serves East London and Greenwich on both banks of the Thames . Commuter trains do not usually pass through the city but stop in one of the 14 stations of the city located around the historic center. Crossrail is a proposed regional express network which should become operational in 2015 and will connect the suburbs east and west across London in a vault, a city train, the overground , which entered service in November 2007. The train service Eurostar connects the railway station St. Pancras to Lille and Paris ( France ) in 1 h 20 h 15 and 2 respectively, and Brussels ( Belgium ) in 1 h 50. There are also projects for the reintegration of the tramway in central London. Road transport
Decker bus in London Although the vast majority of transport from the heart of London is carried out by public transport, the car use dominates in the suburbs. [ref. needed] The London Inner Ring Road (ring located around the center of London), roads A406 and A205 (in the suburbs) and the M25 (farthest) bypass the city and Judaica Bat Mitzvah Gifts link the many paths toward the center- London ( Inner London ). A project of highways crisscrossing the city (called Ringway London ) was launched in the 1960s but was largely abandoned in the early years 1970-1971 because of objections from local residents and the high cost 84 . In 2003 , a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic in the city center. With few exceptions, drivers must pay 8 pounds a day to get inside an area corresponding to the center of London. Motorists living within the charging zone pay 10% is payable for five days and costs £ 4 or £ 16 for four weeks.
London taxi Most bus routes in the network of London operate day and night. Some lines even work 24 hours on 24. The bus transportation is mainly used for local travel and carries more passengers than the Underground 85 . Each day of the week, the London buses carry 6 million passengers on over 700 different routes. The number of trips has reached 1.8 billion in 2005/2006 86 . The double-decker bus red is a symbol of London, as well as black cabs and the subway. London, to support its policy of eradication of the car, investing heavily in private transport rider. Thus, in 2006 London has invested 38 million euros in the bike lanes and bike parking. Air transport London is also a platform connecting global airline. No less than 150 million passengers in one of eight airports that contain ” London Airport ” [ref. necessary] in their name but virtually all international traffic passes through 6 airports main ( Heathrow , Gatwick , Stansted , Luton , London City and London Southend ). The Heathrow Airport is the largest in Phen375 the world in terms of international passengers 87 and offers a full range of domestic flights, European and intercontinental. An important part of international traffic and number of flights of low cost airlines are supported by the Gatwick Airport . The airports of Stansted and Luton are specialized in short-haul flights of low cost airlines . The London City Airport , the smallest and closest to London, is rather, because of its proximity to financial centers of the capital, specializing hcg diet in private flights and hosts short-haul flights and a major traffic of private jets 88 . The London Southend Airport is the newcomer to the choice for travelers. Water transport This section is empty, insufficiently detailed or incomplete. Your help is welcome! Education
Main entrance to the Royal Holloway , one of the colleges of the University of London . Welcoming numbers of universities and other higher education institution, London has about 378,000 students 89 and is a major center for research and development . Most primary and secondary schools in London follow the English education system. With 125,000 students, the University of London is the largest university in the United Kingdom and Europe 90 . It consists of 20 colleges and numerous institutes, each with considerable autonomy in issuing certificates. The colleges such as UCL , King’s and Royal Holloway or more specialized institutions such as Imperial College , the London School of Economics , SOAS , the Royal Academy of Music and the Institute of Education , have their own admission procedure and is universities full well that the diplomas are awarded by the University of London. In 2007, Imperial College has officially left the federation of the University of London in conjunction with the celebration of its centennial, and issue its own degrees. Several other universities are currently evaluating the possibility to award their own degrees while remaining within the federation 91 . Other universities based in London, Wire Cart Covers such as City University , the Brunel University , the London Metropolitan University , the University of Middlesex , the UEL , the University of Westminster and London South Bank University , are not part of University of London. Some were polytechnics that were granted university status by the Further and Higher Education Act in 1992. London is also renowned for its business education and business [ref. needed] with the London Business School , the Cass Business School or Business School of French ESCP Europe , which set up its campus in the London district of Hampstead . London is also home to many museums are one of the attractions of the city but also participate in research. The Natural History Museum , the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum are all three together in the “museum district” at South Kensington , while the British Museum include historic collections around the world. The British Library , located in the district of St Pancras is the national library of the United Kingdom, hosting more than 150 million books 92 . The city is also home to numerous art collections, mainly in the National Gallery , the Tate Britain or Tate Modern . Culture
The O2 , one of the largest domes in the world, originally built to celebrate the new millennium, this structure is now part of a reconstruction project and hosts many major events
Bond Street , a main shopping streets of Mayfair . Within the City of Westminster , the district of West End includes many attractions around Leicester Square , where many films are played in preview Britain and the world, and Piccadilly Circus and electronic advertisements covering many buildings .
The Albert, Victoria Street, one of the most famous pubs in London. In this area are also the theater district of London with its many cinemas, bars, pubs, nightclubs, restaurants and the Chinese district of London . A little further east is Covent Garden which is the avenue of stars , based on the Walk of Fame to Hollywood . Shoreditch and Hoxton , located in Hackney in the East End include also many bars, restaurants, night clubs and galleries. Upper Street , one block from the 2 km long district of Islington , had more bars than any other street in the UK. It is also the first street to offer a wireless internet access in its cafes. [ref. needed] Oxford Street , often cited as the longest shopping street in the world, has over 300 shops for about 2 km from Marble Arch , and hosts nearly 200 million customers per year 93 . Bond Street in Mayfair is home to many boutiques, as well as the district of Knightsbridge where is Harrods . The districts of Knightsbridge ( Sloane Street ), Mayfair (Bond Street, Brook Street ) and Chelsea (King’s Road) include many designers and fashion boutiques including Vivienne Westwood , John Galliano , Stella McCartney , Manolo Blahnik and Jimmy Choo . London is also home to many markets, including Camden Market for fashion, Portobello Road for antiques and Borough Market for organic products. Films and Literature Related article: List of films that take place in London .
Charles Dickens (1812-1870), author of London of the Victorian era . London has inspired many authors and was the subject of many works of literature. William Shakespeare has spent much of his life and also worked in London. His contemporary Ben Jonson also lived in London and some of his writings, including The Alchemist , take place in the city. Two writers closely associated with the city: Samuel Pepys (1633 – 1703) who reported such major events as the plague of London and the great fire of 1666 and Charles Dickens (1812-1870), whose description of a London foggy, snowy, grimy streets solar panels filled with sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on the perception of the city to the Victorian era . Many important works have decorated the city. Life of Johnson , the biography of James Boswell takes place mainly in London and is the origin of the famous quote from Samuel Johnson : “When a man is tired of London, he tired of life pay day loans as there is in London all that life can bring “( When a Man Is tired of London, He Is tired of life; in London for There Is All That Life Can AFFORD ) 94 . free government money The Journal of the plague years of Daniel Defoe is a work of fiction based on the great plague of 1665. The London of the xix th century and early xx th century is described in the novels of Dickens and already mentioned in the adventures of Sherlock Holmes of Arthur Conan Doyle . The 1933 novel by George Orwell Down and Out in Paris and London describes the life of the poor in both British and French capitals. Peter Ackroyd is a modern writer who has also been influenced by the city, including London: The Biography , The Lambs of London and Hawksmoor . Bloomsbury and the district of Hampstead has traditionally been the heart of the current libertarian literature in London. London also plays an important role in the film industry. Four major studios are located in the city: Pinewood , Shepperton , Elstree and Leavesden , as well as many companies that specialize in post production and special effects . Many films were shot in London itself: Peter Pan ( 1953 ) 101 Dalmatians ( 1961 ) Mary Poppins ( 1964 ), Maid in Notting Hill ( 1999 ) and 28 Days Later ( 2002 ) Match Point ( 2005 ). Sweeney Todd ( 2008 ) for example. London is also home to many performing arts schools such as Central School of Speech and Drama , which came out Judi Dench and Laurence Olivier , the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art , where trained Jim Broadbent and Donald Sutherland among others and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art , with Joan Collins and Roger Moore among its alumni. The London Film Festival , organized by the British Film Institute , is held in the city every year in October. Museums Main article: List of museums in London . London has a panel of one of the largest museums in the world. It is also the city in the world with the largest number of galleries and art museums per capita. There are museums in all areas: art, science, history, recreation, etc.. Some examples, among the best known: the British Museum (museum of history and human culture), the National Gallery (art museum), the Tate Modern (Museum of Contemporary Art), Victoria and Albert Museum ( museum of British history), Museum of Natural History, … Music London is a world capital of classical music and pop / rock. [ref. needed] The city is the seat of one of the four major record labels , EMI Group , and countless musicians, cash advance bands, orchestras and music professionals. Classical Music
The Royal Albert Hall hosts many concerts. Five professional orchestras are based in London: the London Symphony Orchestra , the London Philharmonic Orchestra , the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra , the Philharmonia Orchestra and the BBC Symphony Orchestra . Many other bands are also located in the city: the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment , the London Sinfonietta and the sets London Mozart Players and Chamber Orchestra Français . The highlight of the season classic takes place every year in summer with The Proms , a series of about 70 classical music concerts at Royal Albert Hall . Opera and ballet London has two main opera houses: the Royal Opera House and the Coliseum Theatre . The ballets Royal Ballet and the National Ballet Français occur Royal Opera House , the Sadler’s Wells Theatre and the Royal Albert Hall . Pop / rock London is home to many venues pop / rock such as Earls Court and Wembley Arena , the Carling Brixton Academy or the Hammersmith Apollo , and countless more intimate rooms. Many resident artists in London and the Home Counties surrounding. The city has been opened the first Hard Rock Cafe and the famous Abbey Road studios . As the largest city in the United Kingdom, London has played a major role in the birth of a diversity of urban music , punk and electronic , [ref. needed] such as drum and bass , garage, , grime and dubstep . Many artists of British hip-hop 95 also live in London. In 2006, DJ Magazine published a survey of 600 international DJs who established that London was home to three of the best nightclubs in the world: Fabric 96 , The End and Turnmills . In 2007, when a new survey, the fabric was ranked in second place and The End in fourth place, six London clubs are in the first fifty seats 97 . Sport
The Wembley , the stadium the most expensive in the world 98 . In the xx th century, London hosted a number of occasions of major sporting events worldwide such as the Summer Olympics twice, in 1908 and 1948 . On 7 July 2005 , London was again appointed by the International Olympic Committee as the host city of 2012 Olympic Games , making it the first city to receive the Olympics three times 99 . In 1934 , the Commonwealth bakery Games were also held in the British capital. The most popular sport in London is football (both the number of players by the number of spectators) 100 . The city has fourteen San Diego Homes For Rent clubs football League that evolve five Premier League ( Arsenal , Chelsea , Fulham , Tottenham Hotspur and Queens Park Rangers ), the other three clubs playing in lower divisions ( Barnet , Brentford , Charlton Athletic , Crystal Palace , Dagenham & Redbridge , Leyton Orient , Millwall , West Ham United Football Club , Watford , and the AFC Wimbledon ). There are also many clubs non-league and amateur. London has four clubs rugby playing in the Premier League ( Exiles , Saracens , London Wasps and Harlequins ), although only the Harlequins play in London really (other clubs play outside Greater London ). The club Harlequins Rugby League is changing him in Super League . Other rugby clubs London are Richmond FC , Blackheath RC , Rosslyn Park and Barnes RFC .
Twickenham Stadium . Twickenham in west London, is the national rugby stadium can accommodate 82,000 spectators. The new Wembley Stadium can accommodate 90,000 spectators now up to the England team football as well as the finals of the FA Cup football , the League Cup soccer and rugby . The other major football stadiums are Craven Cottage for Fulham Emirates Stadium for Arsenal, Stamford Bridge for Chelsea White Hart Lane for Tottenham Hotspur and Upton Park for West Ham. The cricket is played mainly in London on two grounds test cricket , the Lord’s Cricket Ground (home to the Middlesex CC ) at St. John’s Wood and the Oval (home to the Surrey CC ) in Kennington . The baseball is becoming increasingly popular with London having more leagues and teams including high Croydon Pirates and London Mets . Other annual events include the sport in London Wimbledon being held at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club at Wimbledon , the London Marathon which hosts 35,000 participants and the Boat Race , which for 153 years, see s’ face on the Thames between Putney and Mortlake , clubs for rowing , the University of Cambridge and of Oxford . Media
Headquarters of Reuters at Canary Wharf . London is one of the first communication centers in the world with the presence of a large number of communications companies 101 . Most major British media and all major national television networks, including BBC News, the leading information service in the world 102 , have their headquarters in London. Approximately 53% of British jobs related to television and radio were concentrated in London 103 . This concentration has often led some commentators to criticize the centering of the United Kingdom London 101 . This has led some major media to relocate some of their premises: the BBC announced in June 2004 that its sport and youth services would be transferred to Manchester , northern England 104 . The other networks installed in London among them ITV , Channel 4 , Five and BSkyB . Like the BBC, the media sometimes produce their programs elsewhere in the UK but London is still the main production site. Local programs are offered by the regional services of the major networks: BBC London on BBC One and ITV London on ITV1 . There are many radio stations available in London. Local radio stations include Capital Radio , Heart 106.2 , Kiss 100 and Xfm . Radios information and discussions include BBC London , LBC 97.3 and LBC News 1152 .
Headquarters of Channel 4 on Horseferry Road . The London newspaper market is dominated by the national editions of the great British newspapers, all published in the capital. Until the 1970s, most national newspapers were focused on Fleet Street but in the 1980s, they were relocated to more spacious warehouse, which can accommodate printing machines. Most are now in locksmiths East London. At Wapping, in 1986 , SOGAT 82, the union printers strongly opposed the relocation, leading to many confrontations with the police 105 . The last major news agency in Fleet Street , Reuters , moved to Canary Wharf in 2005 , but Fleet Street is a term still strongly associated with the national press. There are four local newspapers in London, the Evening Standard and three free titles, Metro , London Lite (published by the Evening Standard ) and thelondonpaper . All are available on the street and the subway and train stations. Time Out Magazine , a weekly independent guide provides a list of concerts, films, plays and other cultural activities since 1968 . There are many other local newspapers in Greater London, reporting very local information. London is the center of the British film and television industry, with major studios to the west of the city and an important sector of post-production based in Soho . London, with New York, one of the two main centers of publishing in English. London in popular culture
This section is empty, insufficiently detailed or incomplete. Your help is welcome! Related article: List of films with London main frame . The characters of Sherlock Holmes , Jack the Ripper and Oliver Twist are known and linked to the cultural history of London.